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SHANGHAI HUAMING GONA RARE EARTH NEW MATERIALS CO.,LTD.
SHANGHAI HUAMING GONA RARE EARTH NEW MATERIALS CO.,LTD.was founded in 2006, located in Songjiang Industrial zone, rounded by National Engineering research Center of Ultrafine Powder(NERCUP).Gona is a R&D company specialized in technology development of functional powder materials. Focused on the control technology of powder particulate, Gona provides series product such as rare earth oxide with special particulate properties, cerium oxide polishing powder, catalyst materials,Alumina Li+ battery ...
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Vietnam Plans to Re-start Rare Earth Mining
Vietnam Plans to Re-start Rare Earth Mining
Vietnam Plans to Re-start Rare Earth Mining   source:Voanews Vietnam plans to restart its biggest rare earths mine next year. The project could greatly increase the supply of the elements to compete with China. The rare earth minerals help power advanced technologies. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) says rare earths are a set of 17 metallic elements that are necessary in the production of high-tech products from mobile phones and electric vehicles to advanced weapons. China only has about one-third of the world’s rare earth reserves. But a 2022 study from Marsh McLennan says that the country now controls more than 60 percent of rare earth mining and 85 percent of processing capacity worldwide. The USGS estimates that Vietnam has the world’s second-largest rare earth reserves after China. They have remained largely unmined. Last September, U.S. President Joe Biden signed an agreement during his Vietnam visit to help the country with getting investors to open mining operations.   The agreement is a step toward helping the Southeast Asian country build up a rare-earths supply chain. The deal’s terms include developing the country’s ability to turn raw elements into metals used in magnets for electric vehicles, smartphones and wind turbines. As a first step, Vietnam's government plans to auction several areas of its Dong Pao mine to investors before the end of the year. Tessa Kutscher is an executive at Australia's Blackstone Minerals, a company that plans to bid on the project. Kutscher told Reuters news agency that Blackstone's investment would be worth around $100 million if it wins. She added that the company was talking to electric car makers, including VinFast and Rivian, about possible supply contracts. An undated photo shows rice paddies where rare earth processing factory is planned near Nam Xe mine in Lai Chau province in Vietnam. (REUTERS) An undated photo shows rice paddies where rare earth processing factory is planned near Nam Xe mine in Lai Chau province in Vietnam. (REUTERS)   Dong Pao mine The Dong Pao mine has been inactive for at least seven years. Two Japanese companies, Toyota Tsusho and Sojitz, left mining projects at Dong Pao after China greatly increased the rare earth supply to bring the prices down. Refining rare earths is complex and China controls many processing technologies. Still, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology says that rare earths at Dong Pao are relatively easy to mine and are mostly concentrated in bastnaesite ores. These rare earth ores will then be ground into powder and processed into rare-earth oxide (REO).   Luu Anh Tuan is the chairman of Vietnam Rare Earth (VTRE). The company is Vietnam’s main refiner and Blackstone's partner in the project. He expected Dong Pao to produce about 30,000 metric tons of rare-earth oxide equivalent a year. That amount would put Dong Pao's output a little below that of California's Mountain Pass, one of the world's largest mines, which produced 43,000 metric tons of the element in 2022. In July, Vietnam’s government said it planned to develop additional mines to produce up to 60,000 tons of REO equivalent a year by 2030. China set its own target of 210,000 tons last year. Once separated, oxides are turned into metals for use in magnets and other industrial products. China is the world’s leader of the metallization process, producing 90 percent of rare-earth metals, the U.S. Department of Energy says. But VTRE is working on a project to build a metallization factory with South Korea's Setopia.   Dudley Kingsnorth is a professor at the Western Australia School of Mines at Curtin University. He said Vietnam had some way to go to reach its rare-earth goals. Still, he said, Vietnam "has the resources, the mining and processing expertise to provide alternatives to China."  
2023-11-01
Nova Minerals discovers Stibium and Styx antimony prospects
Nova Minerals discovers Stibium and Styx antimony prospects
Nova Minerals discovers Stibium and Styx antimony prospects within Estelle gold project   source:SMALL CAPS Nova Minerals (ASX: NVA) has confirmed the discovery of the Stibium and Styx antimony prospects within the Estelle gold project in Alaska. Field observations and soil and rock chip assays from the company’s current exploration program identified an abundance of massive stibnite (which is the primary ore source for the critical mineral antimony) hosted in quartz veins within areas coinciding with potential gold mineralisation. The results indicate the presence of antimony-enriched gold mineralisation within the Estelle gold trend and has led Nova to include antimony analysis as part of its future assay protocol and resource work at the project. The company will also conduct a review of existing multi-element assays to determine if antimony is also coincident within other high-priority gold prospects.   Good timing Nova chief executive officer Christopher Gerteisen said identifying antimony at Estelle was good timing in the current market. “The discovery of high-grade stibnite associated with the gold system emerging at Estelle represents a significant development for us as the US government has listed antimony as a critical and strategic mineral to the nation’s economic and national security interests,” he said. “Our team is now assessing the potential scale of this discovery and the additional value it could add to this project via the domestic supply of a mineral which has historically relied on imports from China and Russia.”   Grant and funding options While Nova is yet to identify the scale and strategic importance of its antimony discoveries, Mr Gerteisen said the company had already made moves to approach the US government’s defence and energy departments to discuss grant and funding options. In order to qualify for funding, proposed projects must offer an industrial resource, material or technology which is essential to the national defence and cannot be reasonably provided in a timely manner by US industry without presidential action. In July, Canadian-listed Perpetua Resources Corporation was granted US$24.8 million in funding for environmental and engineering studies and ancillary permits needed for the domestic production of an antimony trisulfide capability for defence-related energetic materials. In August, Perpetua received a further US$15.5 million to demonstrate a fully domestic antimony trisulfide supply chain using ore from its Stibnite gold project in Idaho.
2023-10-17
New process developed to extract rare earth element oxides
New process developed to extract rare earth element oxides
Critical minerals, including rare earth elements, are essential to the US’ economy and national security as they are used in a variety of everyday applications. Due to their necessity, researchers are looking for new ways to extract these metals to ensure that supply is guaranteed. Now, researchers from Penn State’s Center for Critical Minerals have developed a new purification process that extracts rare earth oxides from acid mine drainage and associated sludges at purities of 88.5% The findings, titled ‘Selective recovery of high-grade rare earth, Al, and Co-Mn from acid mine drainage treatment sludge material,’ were published in Minerals Engineering.   What are rare earth elements and how can they be extracted? Critical minerals, including the 17 rare earth elements, are used in many common household products like smartphones and computers, and in applications essential to the clean energy transition, such as electric vehicles, batteries, and solar panels. Demand for these metals has increased due to their high economic importance, and high supply risk, and subsequently, their absence would have significant consequences on the economic and national security of the US.   The US needs to ensure that a supply of these minerals is secured, and therefore needs to look at extracting these minerals domestically. Acid mine drainage (AMD) and associated solids and precipitates resulting from AMD treatment have been found to be viable sources of multiple critical minerals and rare earth elements.   The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is exploring this further and has funded efforts to demonstrate both the technical feasibility and economic viability of extracting, separating, and recovering REEs and CMs from US coal and coal by-product sources, with the goal of achieving mixed rare earth oxides from coal-based resources with minimum purities of 75%.   “We have been working to develop strategies to recover CMs and REEs from these waste streams and have achieved a milestone of 88.5% grade REEs,” said Sarma Pisupati, Professor of Energy and Mineral Engineering and Director of the Center for Critical Minerals at Penn State. “The current target set by the DOE for achieving mixed rare earth oxides is 75% and we have surpassed that target.”   Previous AMD treatment processes The researchers obtained acid mine drainage and associated sludge material representing the Lower Kittanning coal bed and evaluated the recovery of multiple critical minerals. A new purification process based on a previous AMD treatment process was then designed to recover high-grade aluminium, rare earth elements, cobalt, and manganese products from the sludge“The extraction of REEs and CMs directly from AMD eliminates the need for the dissolution of sludge and associated costs of reagents and processing, resulting in more sustainable waste disposal practices with low cost,” said Mohammad Rezaee, Assistant Professor of Mining Engineering at Penn State and co-author on the study.   “We have demonstrated that we are able to turn these waste streams, which have been of environmental concerns for decades, into valuable resources, so this is a win-win for the environment, the commonwealth, and the nation.” Usually, AMD is treated by adding lime or other chemicals to raise the pH to 7. However, the researchers changed this in their new process.   “Typically, AMD is neutralised through the addition of various alkaline chemicals,” said Rezaee. “As the pH of the AMD increases during the treatment process, metals precipitate as metal hydroxides or other complexes.” The new AMD system to extract rare earth element oxides In the new system developed by the researchers, the pH is still raised to 7, but this is done in stages.   “Instead of adding sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, or lime all at once to raise the pH, we are raising it in stages,” said Pisupati. “The advantage of this method is that it allows certain minerals to precipitate out at different pH levels. If we add in our base all at once and bring the pH to 7, all these things will precipitate at the same time. Then we would need to go back and separate them.”   The pH was raised to the level needed for iron to precipitate, and then to the pH needed for aluminium to precipitate. After this precipitation, rare earths and then recovered through carbonate precipitation.   “Our challenge was that we could not get 100% of the iron and aluminium removed; there was a little bit of residue in the REE concentration,” said Pisupati. “Even if you have only 1% of aluminium content in the mixture it dominates, and your quality of rare earths will not be as pure. This was addressed in the new purification process.” The precipitates that were removed are then put back through the cycle in the purification process to remove iron, aluminium, and other residues.   “In the purification process, we go through the cycle all over again, going back to a pH of 3 or 3.5 and starting all over,” said Pisupati. “We are getting rid of the other residues slowly, maybe two times or three times through the cycle, to increase the REE purity. In our previous research, we were at about 17% to 18% grade, so this is a significant accomplishment.” Purity of the recovered minerals   For the target elements, recoveries of more than 99% were achieved with the design of a recycling load. In the previous AMD process, the cobalt and manganese precipitates had a concentration of 0.85% and 23%, respectively. The new purification process increased their concentrations to 1.3% and 43%.
2022-12-01
Rare Earth Materials Lay a Stable Multiband Microlasing Platform
Rare Earth Materials Lay a Stable Multiband Microlasing Platform
WUHAN, China, Sept. 9, 2022 — A recent demonstration by a team at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) spotlights the possibility of stable multiband lasing by rare earth (RE) elements. In the work, the research team used polymer-assisted thermal doping to fabricate RE-doped microcavities with ultrahigh intrinsic Q factors exceeding 108. The doping process did not introduce any obvious ion clustering or scattering loss. The ultrahigh intrinsic Q factor makes the process a natural platform for achieving lasing and further nonlinear phenomena that require low power.   Aside from the advantages for laser applications, the ultrahigh-Q doped microcavity may also offer a platform for ultrahigh-precision sensing, optical memories, and investigation of cavity-matter-light interactions.   Microlasers with multiple lasing bands are crucial components in various applications, such as full-color display, optical communications, and computing. RE elements offer abundant long-lived intermediate energy levels and intraconfigurational transitions necessary for emissions over a wide range of lightwave bands. It is possible to generate deep-ultraviolet (UV) to mid-infrared light by pumping photons through downshifting, to lower frequency — and upconversion, to increase energy. Though upconversion offers advantages that include better penetration depth and less ionization damage, it is generally more difficult than downshifting. Combining downshifting with upconversion can expand the emission wavelength range for the greatest potential.   Since using REs for upconversion eliminates the need for rigorous phase-matching conditions or high pump density, researchers have asked if it could be possible to construct a multiband laser by doping RE elements into an ultrahigh-Q microcavity without degrading its intrinsic Q factor.   HUST researchers demonstrated simultaneous ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared CW lasing at room temperature. The work supports ultrahigh-precision sensing, optical memories, and investigation of cavity-matter-light interactions. Courtesy of B. Jiang, et al., doi 10.1117/1.AP.4.4.046003.   HUST researchers demonstrated simultaneous ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared continuous-wave lasing at room temperature. The work supports ultrahigh-precision sensing, optical memories, and investigation of cavity-matter-light interactions. Courtesy of B. Jiang et al., doi 10.1117/1.AP.4.4.046003.   Research for high-order upconversion lasers typically uses a pulsed laser pump in a cryogenic environment, which aims to reduce thermal damage for gain materials and resonant cavities.   In the recent demonstration, the HUST team achieved UV and violet continuous-wave (CW) upconversion lasing from RE elements at room temperature.   The team doped a microcavity with erbium and ytterbium and pumped it with a CW 975-nm laser. The resulting laser spanned a wavelength range of about 1170 nm, covering the UV, visible, and near-infrared (NIR) bands. The team estimated that all the lasing thresholds were at the submilliwatt level. The microlasers exhibited good intensity stability over 190 min, which makes them suitable for practical applications.   Additionally, other RE elements — such as thulium, holmium, and neodymium — may allow for flexible pump schemes and abundant lasing wavelengths.
2022-09-14
The Future of Mining Rare Earth Elements Sustainably
The Future of Mining Rare Earth Elements Sustainably
source:AZO Mining   Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise 17 metallic elements, made up of 15 lanthanides on the periodic table:La,Ce,Pr......... Cerium is the most common REE and more abundant than copper or lead. They are instead found in four main uncommon rock types; carbonatites, which are unusual igneous rocks derived from carbonate-rich magmas, alkaline igneous settings, ion-absorption clay deposits, and monazite-xenotime-bearer placers deposits. Since the late 1990s, China has dominated REE production, utilizing its own ion-absorption clay deposits, known as the ‘South China Clays’. Rare earth elements are used for all sorts of hi-tech equipment, including computers, DVD players, cell phones, lighting, fiber optics, cameras and speakers, and even military equipment, such as jet engines, missile guidance systems, satellites, and anti-missile defense. In 2010, China announced it would reduce REE exports to fulfill its own rise in demand, but also maintain its dominant position for supplying hi-tech equipment to the rest of the world. Phosphogypsum Fertilizer Rare Earth Elements Capture Project Therefore, researchers at Penn State University, have devised a multistage approach using engineered peptides, short strings of amino acids that can accurately identify and separate REEs using a specially developed membrane. The design is led by computational modeling, developed by Rachel Getman, principal investigator and associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Clemson, with investigators Christine Duval and Julie Renner, developing the molecules that will latch on to specific REEs. Chemical engineering professor Lauren Greenlee, claims that: “today, an estimated 200,000 tons of rare earth elements are trapped in unprocessed phosphogypsum waste in Florida alone.” The new project will focus on recovering them in a sustainable way and may be rolled out on a larger scale for environmental and economic benefits. National Science Foundation Project Funding Alternative Ways to Recover Rare Earth Elements Although a simple process, leaching requires a high quantity of hazardous chemical reagents, so is undesirable commercially. Another common way for REEs to be recovered is through agromining, also known as e-mining, which involves the transportation of electronic waste, such as old computers, phones, and television from various countries to China for REE extraction. Although often touted as a sustainable method of recycling materials, it is not without its own set of problems that still need to be overcome. The Penn State University Project has the potential to overcome some of the problems associated with traditional REE recovery methods if it can satisfy its own environmental and economic objectives.
2022-02-24
The Future of Mining Rare Earth Elements Sustainably
The Future of Mining Rare Earth Elements Sustainably
source:AZO Mining   What are Rare Earth Elements and Where are they Found? Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise 17 metallic elements, made up of 15 lanthanides on the periodic table:La,Ce,Pr......... Most of them are not as rare as the group name suggests but were named in the 18th and 19th centuries, in comparison to other more common ‘earth’ elements such as lime and magnesia. Cerium is the most common REE and more abundant than copper or lead. However, in geological terms, REEs are rarely found in concentrated deposits as coal seams, for example, are making them economically difficult to mine. They are instead found in four main uncommon rock types; carbonatites, which are unusual igneous rocks derived from carbonate-rich magmas, alkaline igneous settings, ion-absorption clay deposits, and monazite-xenotime-bearer placers deposits. China Mines 95% of Rare Earth Elements to Satisfy Demand for Hi-Tech Lifestyles and Renewable Energy Since the late 1990s, China has dominated REE production, utilizing its own ion-absorption clay deposits, known as the ‘South China Clays’. It is economical for China to do because the clay deposits are simple to extract REEs from using weak acids. Rare earth elements are used for all sorts of hi-tech equipment, including computers, DVD players, cell phones, lighting, fiber optics, cameras and speakers, and even military equipment, such as jet engines, missile guidance systems, satellites, and anti-missile defense. An objective of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement is to limit global warming to below 2 ˚C, preferably 1.5 ˚C, pre-industrial levels. This has increased demand for renewable energy and electric cars, which also require REEs to operate. In 2010, China announced it would reduce REE exports to fulfill its own rise in demand, but also maintain its dominant position for supplying hi-tech equipment to the rest of the world. China is also in a strong economic position to control the supply of REEs needed for renewable energies such as solar panels, wind, and tidal power turbines, as well as electric vehicles. Phosphogypsum Fertilizer Rare Earth Elements Capture Project Phosphogypsum is a by-product of fertilizer and contains naturally occurring radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium. For this reason, it is stored indefinitely, with associated risks of polluting soil, air, and water. Therefore, researchers at Penn State University, have devised a multistage approach using engineered peptides, short strings of amino acids that can accurately identify and separate REEs using a specially developed membrane. As traditional separation methods are insufficient, the project aims to devise new separation techniques, materials, and processes. The design is led by computational modeling, developed by Rachel Getman, principal investigator and associate professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Clemson, with investigators Christine Duval and Julie Renner, developing the molecules that will latch on to specific REEs. Greenlee will look at how they behave in water and will assess the environmental impact and different economic potentials under variable design and operating situations. Chemical engineering professor Lauren Greenlee, claims that: “today, an estimated 200,000 tons of rare earth elements are trapped in unprocessed phosphogypsum waste in Florida alone.” The team identifies that traditional recovery is associated with environmental and economic barriers, whereby they are currently recovered from composite materials, which require the burning of fossil fuels and is labor-intensive The new project will focus on recovering them in a sustainable way and may be rolled out on a larger scale for environmental and economic benefits. If the project is successful, it could also reduce the USA’s dependency on China for providing rare earth elements. National Science Foundation Project Funding The Penn State REE project is funded by a four-year grant of $571,658, totaling $1.7 million, and is a collaboration with Case Western Reserve University and Clemson University. Alternative Ways to Recover Rare Earth Elements RRE recovery is typically carried out using small-scale operations, commonly by leaching and solvent extraction. Although a simple process, leaching requires a high quantity of hazardous chemical reagents, so is undesirable commercially. Solvent extraction is an effective technique but is not very efficient because it is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Another common way for REEs to be recovered is through agromining, also known as e-mining, which involves the transportation of electronic waste, such as old computers, phones, and television from various countries to China for REE extraction. According to the UN Environment Programme, over 53 million tons of e-waste were generated in 2019, with around $57 billion raw materials containing REEs and metals. Although often touted as a sustainable method of recycling materials, it is not without its own set of problems that still need to be overcome. Agromining requires a lot of storage space, recycling plants, landfill waste after REE recovery, and involves transportation costs, which require burning fossil fuels. The Penn State University Project has the potential to overcome some of the problems associated with traditional REE recovery methods if it can satisfy its own environmental and economic objectives.
2022-02-24
Rare Earth Elements Await In Waste
Rare Earth Elements Await In Waste
Source:Eurasia Review   Rare earth elements are hard to get and hard to recycle, but a flash of intuition led Rice University scientists toward a possible solution.   The Rice lab of chemist James Tour reports it has successfully extracted valuable rare earth elements (REE) from waste at yields high enough to resolve issues for manufacturers while boosting their profits.   The lab’s flash Joule heating process, introduced several years ago to produce graphene from any solid carbon source, has now been applied to three sources of rare earth elements — coal fly ash, bauxite residue and electronic waste — to recover rare earth metals, which have magnetic and electronic properties critical to modern electronics and green technologies.   The researchers say their process is kinder to the environment by using far less energy and turning the stream of acid often used to recover the elements into a trickle.   The study appears in Science Advances.   Rare earth elements aren’t actually rare. One of them, cerium, is more abundant than copper, and all are more abundant than gold. But these 15 lanthanide elements, along with yttrium and scandium, are widely distributed and difficult to extract from mined materials.   “The U.S. used to mine rare earth elements, but you get a lot of radioactive elements as well,” Tour said. “You’re not allowed to reinject the water, and it has to be disposed of, which is expensive and problematic. On the day the U.S. did away with all rare earth mining, the foreign sources raised their price tenfold.”   So there’s plenty of incentive to recycle what’s been mined already, he said. Much of that is piled up or buried in fly ash, the byproduct of coal-fired power plants. “We have mountains of it,” he said. “The residue of burning coal is silicon, aluminum, iron and calcium oxides that form glass around the trace elements, making them very hard to extract.” Bauxite residue, sometimes called red mud, is the toxic byproduct of aluminum production, while electronic waste is from outdated devices like computers and smart phones.   While industrial extraction from these wastes commonly involves leaching with strong acid, a time-consuming, non-green process, the Rice lab heats fly ash and other materials (combined with carbon black to enhance conductivity) to about 3,000 degrees Celsius (5,432 degrees Fahrenheit) in a second. The process turns the waste into highly soluble “activated REE species.”   Tour said treating fly ash by flash Joule heating “breaks the glass that encases these elements and converts REE phosphates to metal oxides that dissolve much more easily.” Industrial processes use a 15-molar concentration of nitric acid to extract the materials; the Rice process uses a much milder 0.1-molar concentration of hydrochloric acid that still yields more product.   In experiments led by postdoctoral researcher and lead author Bing Deng, the researchers found flash Joule heating coal fly ash (CFA) more than doubled the yield of most of the rare earth elements using very mild acid compared to leaching untreated CFA in strong acids.   “The strategy is general for various wastes,” Bing said. “We proved that the REE recovery yields were improved from coal fly ash, bauxite residue and electronic wastes by the same activation process.”   The generality of the process makes it especially promising, Bing said, as millions of tons of bauxite residue and electronic waste are also produced every year.   “The Department of Energy has determined this is a critical need that has to be resolved,” Tour said. “Our process tells the country that we’re no longer dependent on environmentally detrimental mining or foreign sources for rare earth elements.”   Tour’s lab introduced flash Joule heating in 2020 to convert coal, petroleum coke and trash into graphene, the single-atom-thick form of carbon, a process now being commercialized. The lab has since adapted the process to convert plastic waste into graphene and to extract precious metals from electronic waste.  
2022-02-10
General Atomics finalises DOE rare earth element demonstration
General Atomics finalises DOE rare earth element demonstration
Source:Global Mining Review   General Atomics Electromagnetic Systems (GA-EMS) has finalised negotiations with the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office for facility design and engineering in preparation for the construction and operation of a rare earth element (REE) separation and processing demonstration plant. GA-EMS is teaming with GA Europe’s Umwelt-und-Ingenieurtechnik GmbH (UIT), Rare Element Resources, Ltd (RER), and LNV, an Ardurra Group, Inc. company to begin the 40-month project to design, build and operate the REE separation and processing demonstration facility in Wyoming.   “We are looking forward to getting underway with the team to bring this demonstration project to life,” stated Scott Forney, President of GA-EMS. “REEs are critical to a wide range of technologies supporting both commercial and defence-related applications, including electric vehicles, solar panels, fibre optics, and high-strength permanent magnets. This project will provide valuable information regarding the development of domestic rare earth element resources and separation technologies that have the potential to improve REE supply and availability to meet growing demand.”   The DOE announced earlier in 2021 that it had selected GA-EMS for negotiation of a financial award for the project. The recent confirmation of the financial award allows the GA-EMS team to begin design and engineering work in preparation for facility construction and plant operation. Once completed, the demonstration plant will enable the separation and purification of rare earth oxides derived from ore removed from RER’s Bear Lodge deposit in Wyoming. The project’s primary goal is to demonstrate REE separation and processing at a scale sufficient to provide data and metrics predictive of cost and performance for a follow-on commercial-scale separation and processing facility
2021-12-28
New findings on the occurrence of RE metals outside of Grännaa
New findings on the occurrence of RE metals outside of Grännaa
New technologies and expanding electrification mean a growing need for both common and uncommon metals, such as rare earth metals. One of Europe's largest deposits is in Norra Kärr outside of Gränna   "Norra Kärr can help make the EU self-sufficient in rare earth metals," says Axel Sjöqvist, author of a new doctoral thesis at the University of Gothenburg.   Reliable sources of rare earth metals are required to successfully transition to green energy and for new production of wind turbines and electrical cars. Rare earth metals are used in devices like displays, catalytic converters, batteries and powerful permanent magnets.   "It is important to learn about the geological origins and development of these rock types and to identify the distribution of rare earth metals between different types of rocks and minerals. Knowing this allows us to efficiently use resources and facilitates future prospecting in Sweden and globally," says Axel Sjöqvist at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg.   The studies in Sjöqvist's dissertation provide new insights into Norra Kärr's geological origin. "There is a lack of reliable sources for many metals and minerals critical for innovations. To live up to the promises of the green transition, there must be sufficient supplies of the metals used in wind turbines and electrical cars. Wind turbines can produce more electricity and electrical cars can drive longer distances thanks to rare earth metals, which are important components in electrical motors and generators."   Mining and mineral extraction also present challenges for the environment. And the plans for mineral extraction outside of Gränna have led to environmental protests.   "Mining of resources always impacts the environment in some way. That impact does not disappear when we import metals. Instead, it increases from a global environmental perspective. The resources embedded in the bedrock cannot be moved, unfortunately. It is up to the Land and Environment Court to decide if the company's [Accent1] new plan for mining in Norra Kärr can be done in an environmentally sound manner."   Today, the European Union imports 98–99 percent of its demand for rare earth metals from China.   "There, they are produced in doubtful conditions for both humans and the environment. China has a global market monopoly, allowing it to control how much of these metals are available in the rest of the world. As a result, they also have an indirect control over whether the EU succeeds in achieving its sustainability promises."
2021-12-22
Battery energy storage will help China achieve carbon neutrality by 2060
Battery energy storage will help China achieve carbon neutrality by 2060
There are two reasons for the large-scale development of advanced energy storage cells: first, the transformation of transportation system from fossil fuel to electrification. This has promoted the development of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries can provide a lot of energy and power, can be charged quickly and have safe performance, making electric vehicles (EVS) cost competitive with gasoline internal combustion engine (ice) vehicles.   Although recognizing the importance of renewable energy and transportation electrification, the share of fossil fuels in the world's mixed energy has basically remained unchanged in the past decade. According to Ren21, fossil fuels accounted for 80.3% of energy consumption in 2009 and 80.2% in 2019. During this period, 'renewable energy now' increased only from 8.7% to 11.2%   China's energy consumption is far ahead in the world, and its energy consumption is two-thirds higher than that of the second ranked United States. In 2019, China's energy structure includes 58% coal, 20% oil, 8% natural gas, 8% hydropower, 2% nuclear energy and 5% other renewable energy, such as wind energy and solar energy. 86% of China's energy comes from fossil fuels   The website visual capitalist Bruno venditti produced five icons to visualize China's energy transformation. The two most interesting pictures show the structure of China's comprehensive energy in 2025 and what needs to be developed in 2060:      Compared with 2019, China's fossil fuel use will only decline by 6%, and wind, solar, nuclear and other renewable energy will only increase by 5%. By 2060, with fossil fuels accounting for only 14% of the total energy and nuclear and renewable energy accounting for 71% of the energy system, all this will be reversed. It is worth noting that the intermittent renewable energy generated by solar and wind energy accounts for 47% of the total, and battery energy storage will be required to achieve these goals
2021-08-26
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